Deep hole processing can be divided into shallow hole processing and deep hole processing, including medium and deep hole processing between them. It is generally stipulated that the ratio of hole depth L to hole diameter D is greater than 5, that is, the hole with L/d > 5 is called deep hole, and the hole with L/d < 5 is called shallow hole.
1. Because of the limitation of hole diameter, the cutter rod has small diameter and long length, resulting in poor rigidity and low strength. It is easy to produce vibration, ripple and taper when cutting, which affects the straightness and surface roughness of deep hole.
2. When drilling and reaming holes, the cooling lubricant is difficult to enter into the cutting area without special device, which reduces the tool durability and makes chip removal difficult.
3. In the process of deep hole processing, we can't directly observe the cutting condition of the tool. We can only judge whether the cutting process is normal by listening to the sound of cutting, looking at iron chips, hand vibration and workpiece temperature, and observing instruments (oil pressure and current monitoring meters).
4. It is necessary to adopt reliable means to break chips and to control the length and shape of chips in order to remove chips smoothly and prevent the blockage of chips.
5. In order to ensure that deep holes can be processed smoothly and meet the required processing quality, chip removal devices, tool guide and support devices and high-pressure cooling and lubrication devices should be added.
6. The tool heat dissipation condition is poor and the cutting temperature rises, which reduces the tool durability.
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